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A nurse holding the arm of a patient who has a  securement dressing on her arm.

Help prevent bloodstream infections before they start.

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Bloodstream infections are a critical issue for health care facilities around the world. Approximately 60% of hospital-acquired bloodstream infections originate from some form of vascular access.1 Some of the most well-known infections are Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infection (CRBSI) and Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection (CLABSI). As your partner in protecting patients, we want to do everything in our power to help you achieve your goal of zero bloodstream infections.

  • An icon of four people.

    1 of 4 patients who get a CLABSI will die.2

  • An icon of a hand holding bank notes.

    The average cost associated with a CLABSI is $25,000.3

  • An icon of a person laying in a hospital bed with a  medical cross above it.

    Patients with a CLABSI spend on average 12-24 more days in hospital.4-6

Sources of vascular-associated bloodstream infections

Bloodstream infections can be acquired at the time of insertion or anytime throughout the duration of vascular access. However, most happen after insertion.7-12 Microbes can enter the bloodstream through extraluminal or intraluminal access points9-13. Contact a representative to learn more about the best practices for presenting bloodstream infections.

  • An illustration of an extraluminal and intraluminal access point penetrating through the skin, into a vein.

    Select the purple hotspots to learn more.



Intraluminal contamination

Results when bacteria migrates through the catheter post insertion, typically via contamination of the lumen through the catheter port.16-17

Extraluminal contamination

Results when bacteria originating on the surface of the skin migrates along the outside of the catheter and enters through the insertion point. 9,14-15

A patient with a securement dressing on their  collarbone holding IV lines.

Reduce risk at all access points.

Learn more about how you can help protect your patients from bloodstream infections.

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3M can help provide solutions to help improve patient safety and reduce risk of costly complications.

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Resources and education

  • A doctor injecting a syringe into an IV line while a patient lies on a hospital bed.

    BSI: Addressing Clinical Challenges with Catheter Maintenance (Intraluminal Contamination) (US, English only)


  • A doctor holding a clipboard, speaking with a patient.

    BSI: Addressing Clinical Challenges with Catheter Maintenance (Extraluminal Contamination) (US, English only)


  • An IV secured to a patient's hand using medical tape, with a 3M™ Curos™ Disinfecting Port Protector on the port.

    A Bundled Approach to Decrease the Rate of Primary Bloodstream Infections Related to Peripheral Intravenous Catheters (US, English only)


Learn more about bloodstream infection prevention solutions.

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  1. Scheithauer S, Lewalter K, Schröder J, Koch A, Häfner H, Krizanovic V, Nowicki K, Hilgers RD, Lemmen SW. Reduction of central venous line-associated bloodstream infection rates by using a chlorhexidine-containing dressing. Infection. 2014 Feb 1;42(1):155-9.
  2. CDC Vitalsigns. March 2011. Source: https://www.cdc.gov/vitalsigns/pdf/2011-03-vitalsigns.pdf
  3. Laupland KB, Lee H, Gregson DB & Manns BJ. Cost of intensive care unit-acquired bloodstream infections. J Hosp Infect. 2006;63(2):124-32
  4. Blot SI, Depuydt P, Annemans L, Benoit D, Hoste E, De Waele JJ, Decruyenaere J, Vogelaers D, Colardyn F, Vandewoude KH. Clinical and economic outcomes in critically ill patients with nosocomial catheter-related bloodstream infections. Clin Infect Dis. 2005; 41(11): 1591-1598.
  5. Renaud B, Brun-Buisson C. Outcomes of primary and catheter-related bacteremia: a cohort and case-control study in critically ill patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001; 163: 1584–1590.
  6. Dimick JB, Pelz RK, Consunji R, Swoboda SM, Hendrix CW, Lipsett PA. Increased resource use associated with catheter-related bloodstream infection in the surgical intensive care unit. Arch Surg. 2001; 136: 229–234.
  7. Guide to Preventing Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infections. Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology. 2015.
  8. Mermel LA, Allon M, Bouza E, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of intravascular catheter-related infection: 2009 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2009; 49(1): 1-45.
  9. Safdar N, Maki DG. The pathogenesis of catheter-related bloodstream infection with noncuffed short-term central venous catheters. Intensive Care Med. 2004; 30(1): 62-67.
  10. Mermel LA. What is the predominant source of intravascular catheter infections? Clin Infect Dis. 2011; 52(2): 211-212.
  11. Maki DG, Stolz SM, Wheeler S, Mermel LA. Prevention of central venous catheter-related bloodstream infection by use of an antiseptic-impregnated catheter: A randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med. 1997; 127(4): 257-266.
  12. Douard MC, Clementi E, Arlet G, et al. Negative catheter-tip culture and diagnosis of catheter-related bacteremia. Nutrition. 1994; 10(5): 397-404.
  13. Dittmer ID, Sharp D, McNulty CA, Williams AJ, Banks RA. A prospective study of central venous hemodialysis catheter colonization and peripheral bacteremia. Clin Nephrol. 1999; 51(1): 34-39.
  14. Mermel LA, McCormick RD, Springman SR, Maki DG. The pathogenesis and epidemiology of catheter related infection with pulmonary artery Swan-Ganz catheters: A prospective study utilizing molecular subtyping. Am J Med. 1991; 91(36):197S–205S.
  15. Maki DG, Weise CE, Sarafin HW. A semiquantitative culture method for identifying intravenous-catheter-related infection. N Engl J Med. 1977; 296(23): 1305-1309.
  16. Segura M, Lladó L, Guirao X, Piracés M, Herms R, Alia C, Sitges-Serra A. A prospective study of a new protocol for ‘in situ’diagnosis of central venous catheter related bacteraemia. Clin Nutr. 1993; 12(2): 103-107.
  17. Raad I, Costerton W, Sabharwal U, Sadlowski M, Anaissie E, Bodey GP. Ultrastructural analysis of indwelling vascular catheters: a quantitative relationship between luminal colonization and duration of placement. J Infect Dis. 1993; 168(2): 400-407.